A solar cell is designed to have a nonreflective film of a transparent material for a wavelength of 590 nm.
Will the thickness of the film depend on the index of refraction of the underlying material in the solar cell?
If nsolar > nfilm and nfilm = 1.20, what is the minimum thickness of the film?.
Repeat the calculation in Part C if nsolar < nfilm and nfilm = 1.40.
Calcite (CaCO3) is a crystal with abnormally large birefringence…
Find the critical angle θce for e-waves in calcite.
Find the critical angle θco for o-waves in calcite.
Assume that the optical axis of the crystal is oriented horizontally (perpendicular to the direction of the incident ray). If unpolarized light shines into the calcite crystal shown and strikes the far side with θi = 40°, which of the following pictures correctly shows what will happen?
Is the transmitted ray (the one that passes into the air) polarized parallel to or perpendicular to the optical axis?
Now assume that the optical axis of the crystal is vertical (parallel to the direction of the incident ray). (The same figure still applies; just assume now that the optical axis is vertical.) Which of the following figures shows what would happen to the incident ray from Part C?
When an x-ray beam is scattered off the planes of a crystal, the scattered beam creates an interference pattern. This phenomenon is called Bragg scattering. For an observer to measure an interference maximum, two conditions have to be satisfied
An x-ray beam with wavelength 0.200nm is directed at a crystal. As the angle of incidence increases, you observe the first strong interference maximum at an angle 28.0°. What is the spacing d between the planes of the crystal?
Find the angle at which you will find a second maximum.
Will you observe a third maximum?
You have been asked to measure the width of a slit in a piece of paper. You mount the paper 80.0 centimeters from a screen and illuminate it from behind with laser light of wavelength 633 nanometers (in air). You mark two of the intensity minima as shown in the figure, and measure the distance between them to be 17.9 millimeters.
What is the width α of the slit?
If the entire apparatus were submerged in water, would the width of the central peak change?